Plague has caused some of the most-devastating epidemics in history. 14 July Dr Sicard declares it to be an outbreak of the pest [but no consensus]. 25 May Arrival at Marseilles. For two long years, the scourge punished the city and region. The city council of Marseilles established a sanitation board, whose members were to be drawn from the city council and the doctors of the city. [8], Out of 1,200 volunteers and prisoners deployed to fight the plague, only three survived. Whether Worth agreed with Chicoyneau is difficult to say: he was certainly interested in his works and collected a number of medical tracts connected to the University of Montpellier. Some of the swellings became as large as an apple, sometimes they were the size of an egg. 2020-03-30T04:12:21.474Z. However, the high death rate suggests that pneumonic plague may also have played a role in Marseilles. The ship was refused entry to the port of Livorno. [citation needed], At the onset of the plague, Nicolas Roze, who had been vice-consul at a factory on the Peloponnese coast and dealt against epidemics there, proposed his services to the local authorities, the échevins. The first public hospital of Marseille was also built during this time period and was given a full-sized staff of doctors and nurses. This multidisciplinary approach revealed previously unknown facts and insights concerning the epidemic of 1722. As a result of his endeavours he was appointed premier physician to Louis XV and Chancellor of the University of Montpellier. Undoubtedly the spread into the countryside was due to the delay in setting up a cordon – one which was only instituted on 1 August. By the time the civic authorities tried to impose a cordon on 1 August at least 10,000 had already fled, bring with them not only their goods but also the illness into the surrounding countryside. Justinian I is often credited as the most influential Byzantine emperor, but his reign also coincided with one of the first well-documented outbreaks of plague. To enforce this separation, a plague wall, or mur de la peste, was erected across the countryside. "Small oversights that led to the Great Plague of Marseille (1720–1723): Lessons from the past", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Great_Plague_of_Marseille&oldid=999036606, 18th-century deaths from plague (disease), Articles with unsourced statements from December 2020, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 8 January 2021, at 05:12. The ship left Sidon in Lebanon, picked up people at Tripoli, and Cyprus which already had infection outbreak. A woodcut showing the Bishop of Marseille during the Great Plague of Provence Hulton Archive/Getty Images. [6] In 1720, Yersinia pestis arrived at the port of Marseille from the Levant upon the merchant ship Grand-Saint-Antoine. 12 June One of the guards of the Grand St Antoine dies suddenly on board. Anon. 1720 – The Great Plague of Marseille – this was the last significant European outbreak of the bubonic plague. Once the central government became aware of this alarming death-rate they were forthcoming with aid. With several known cases of the plague on board, the merchant ship was promptly placed under quarantine by port authorities. 6 Devastating Plagues Take a look back at six of the most infamous outbreaks of the disease once known as the “Great Mortality.”Evan Andrews 1. The anatomic techniques used appear to be identical to those described in a surgical book dating from 1708. This was the worst outbreak of plague … Arriving in Marseille, France in 1720, the disease killed a total of 100,000 people: 50,000 in the city during the next two years and another 50,000 to the north in surrounding provinces and towns. Scott and Duncan, Biology of Plagues (CUP, 2001), p. 338. Despite the financial difficulties of the heavily indebted city of Marseille since the end of the 17th century, Marseille trade is booming after a momentary crisis resulting from the Treaty of Rastatt signed in 1714 putting an end to the war of succession of Spain. As Francois Chicoyneau, perhaps the most famous commentator on the Marseilles plague, explained in his reports from Marseilles, reports collected by Edward Worth, there were a host of symptoms and a time factor involved in their appearance. The exact founding date of th… Arriving in Marseille, France in 1720, the disease killed a total of 100,000 people: 50,000 in the city during the next two years and another 50,000 to the north in surrounding provinces and towns. Chicoyneau’s tracts were all written in French, indicating that they not only had an intended medical audience but also a lay audience who might, especially in times of plague, be left to care for the sick themselves. Signoli, Seguy, Biraben, Dutour & Belle (2002). The criteria for the lazarets were ventilation (to drive off what was thought to be the miasma of disease), be near the sea to facilitate communication and pumping of water to clean, and to be isolated yet easily accessible. The subsequent social breakdown and the class-related nature of mortality: the rich could take the age-old advice ‘cito, longe, tarde’: to ‘flee, stay away for long and be slow in returning’, leaving the poor behind to cope with illness, unemployment and famine. 21 June First suspicious death in the town after an illness of 2 days. Portrait of Francois Chicoyneau: Courtesy of the National Library of Medicine. In the end, it did little good. By its control three years later, only half the city population remained. 1720 – The Great Plague of Marseille – this was the last significant European outbreak of the bubonic plague. The city council of Marseille established a sanitation board, whose members were to be drawn from the city council as well as the doctors of the city. Despite the cordon, the plague spread to surrounding areas, and conditions continued to deteriorate in Marseilles when residents ran out of food, inciting riots. The plague spread to the rest of Provence fairly quickly, and ravaged the local towns of Aix Toulon and and Arles before finally fizzling out in 1722. The events that followed are remembered in history under the name of “The Great Plague of Marseille.” 1. In 1820 the first cholera pandemic occurred, somewhere in Asia. This type of plague spread from a bite caused by a … The Great Bill of Mortality: or, the late The people of Marseilles buy contraband cloth from the sailors, so coming into contact with them. His captain informed the authorities that he had 8 dead on board. Mass graves were dug but were quickly filled. On May 25, 1720, the Grand Saint-Antoine, a ship loaded with fabrics and silks from the Middle East, appeared at the entrance to the Port of Marseille. They not only prevented the plague from reaching other areas of France but also sent money and physicians to Marseilles and the surrounding afflicted areas. (1721) A Succinct Account of the Plague at Marseilles, Its Symptoms, and the Methods and Medicines used for Curing it. 1720: The Plague Devastates Marseille, a Rich but Vulnerable City. In addition to protecting the city from exterior vulnerabilities, the sanitation board sought to build a public infrastructure. There is, however, an element of 20:20 hindsight in the account. When the virus does cause symptoms, common ones include low-grade fever, body aches, coughing, nasal congestion, runny nose, and sore throat. They had a 30% chance of dying within two weeks. Some of the corpses were three weeks old and contemporary sources describe them as "hardly human in shape and set in movement by maggots". Image from: Alamy. The ship left Sidon in Lebanon, picked up people at Tripoli, and Cyprus which already had infection outbreak. The boy’s family was quarantined. The Great Plague of Marseille was the last major outbreak of bubonic plague in western Europe. Plague, infectious disease caused by Yersinia pestis, a bacterium transmitted from rodents to humans by the bite of infected fleas. Infectious Diseases By 2 October it was at Avignon, and steadily making its way through Provence and the Languedoc. 1820 – The First Cholera Pandemic – By 1820, cholera had spread to Thailand, Indonesia, and the Philippines. 1720, the plague of Marseille - The story . He also had five large mass graves dug out, converted La Corderie into a field hospital, and organised distribution of humanitarian supply to the population. This is an English translation of a tract of which Worth had a number of copies. Botany That is like 10million people dying in Lagos. Image from: Alamy. Of the initial population of 90,000 some 39,334 people died. So that we, who were but 4 Months ago in so flourishing a Condition, are now overwhelm’d with Misery.’. The fair of Beaucaire was held annually on the right bank of the Rhône, 82 km from Marseille. Architecture A woodcut showing the Bishop of Marseille during the Great Plague of Provence Hulton Archive/Getty Images. The highest estimates claim that about half of the population of Marseille succumbed to the plague. Follow these links to find out more about, Aldine ‘Ring-a-ring of roses‘ describes in great detail the symptoms of the plague and ends with ‘All fall down’. On May 5, 1720, a trade ship, named the Grand Saint Antoine and skippered by a Captain Jean-Baptiste Chataud, sailed into Marseille having just arrived from an area in the eastern Mediterranean known as Levant.When it docked, the Grand Saint Antoine had a black cloud hanging over it.Its previous attempt to dock at Livorno had been refused because of plague-like symptoms and … The pandemic is believed to have originated in Africa and then spread to Europe through infected rats on merchant ships. 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