Alteration in document, how to explain. The witness may also testify on his impressions of the emotion, behavior, condition or appearance of a person. (36a), Section 43. • Documentary evidence. If the BAC is convinced that the contractor is at fault, it shall issue a resolution recommending to the head of the agency the suspension of the contractor from participating in any bidding process of the agency and the forfeiture of his bid security. Proof of notarial documents. — The reputation or tradition existing in a family previous to the controversy, in respect to the pedigree of any one of its members, may be received in evidence if the witness testifying thereon be also a member of the family, either by consanguinity or affinity. — Before a witness can be impeached by evidence that he has made at other times statements inconsistent with his present testimony, the statements must be related to him, with the circumstances of the times and places and the persons present, and he must be asked whether he made such statements, and if so, allowed to explain them. (1) The accused may prove his good moral character which is pertinent to the moral trait involved in the offense charged. Authentication is essentially showing the court that a piece of evidence is what it claims to be and documentary evidence can be authenticated similar to other real evidence. (d) The existence of other terms agreed to by the parties or their successors in interest after the execution of the written agreement. Circumstantial evidence, when sufficient. EXCLUSIVE: UK-U.S. documentary On The President’s Orders, which chronicles Philippines President Rodrigo Duterte’s violent ‘war on drugs’, is to be used as evidence by the I… A.M. No. (39), Section 46. Coordonateur, Programme d'économie du tabac, Ancien sous-secrétaire des Finances des Philippines, L'OMS, Architecte de la réforme de la politique fiscale Sin 2013 aux Philippines. "Under the best evidence rule, the original document must be produced whenever its contents are the subject of inquiry. To avoid interruption of proceedings, parties or their attorneys are directed to have such translation prepared before trial. Formal offer of evidence under the Judicial Affidavit Rule, 11. Your lawyer will need a copy of your Marriage Certificate, Birth Certificate of your children (if any), names of your witnesses, and other documentary evidence to support your case. Petitioner asks for the conditions under which DNA technology may be integrated into our judicial system and the prerequisites for the admissibility of DNA test results in a paternity suit. Depositions pending appeal. (31a), Section 38. How genuineness of handwriting proved. — The act or declaration of a person deceased, or unable to testify, in respect to the pedigree of another person related to him by birth or marriage, may be received in evidence where it occurred before the controversy, and the relationship between the two persons is shown by evidence other than such act or declaration. The formal offer of documentary or object evidence shall be made upon the termination of the testimony of a party’s last witness. — In the construction of an instrument, where there are several provisions or particulars, such a construction is, if possible, to be adopted as will give effect to all. If he disappeared after the age of seventy-five years, an absence of five years shall be sufficient in order that his succession may be opened. Introduction to and discussion of the Judicial Affidavit Rule, 2. — Parties or assignor of parties to a case, or persons in whose behalf a case is prosecuted, against an executor or administrator or other representative of a deceased person, or against a person of unsound mind, upon a claim or demand against the estate of such deceased person or against such person of unsound mind, cannot testify as to any matter of fact occurring before the death of such deceased person or before such person became of unsound mind. 10 Witnesses testified on … Documentary evidence in an unofficial language. — An authorized public record of a private document may be proved by the original record, or by a copy thereof, attested by the legal custodian of the record, with an appropriate certificate that such officer has the custody. Le but de notre projet est de réaliser une revue de littérature de la recherche sur l’encadrement à distance en enseignement supérieur, publiée en français et anglais. — The following persons cannot testify as to matters learned in confidence in the following cases: (a) The husband or the wife, during or after the marriage, cannot be examined without the consent of the other as to any communication received in confidence by one from the other during the marriage except in a civil case by one against the other, or in a criminal case for a crime committed by one against the other or the latter's direct descendants or ascendants; (b) An attorney cannot, without the consent of his client, be examined as to any communication made by the client to him, or his advice given thereon in the course of, or with a view to, professional employment, nor can an attorney's secretary, stenographer, or clerk be examined, without the consent of the client and his employer, concerning any fact the knowledge of which has been acquired in such capacity; (c) A person authorized to practice medicine, surgery or obstetrics cannot in a civil case, without the consent of the patient, be examined as to any advice or treatment given by him or any information which he may have acquired in attending such patient in a professional capacity, which information was necessary to enable him to act in capacity, and which would blacken the reputation of the patient; (d) A minister or priest cannot, without the consent of the person making the confession, be examined as to any confession made to or any advice given by him in his professional character in the course of discipline enjoined by the church to which the minister or priest belongs; (e) A public officer cannot be examined during his term of office or afterwards, as to communications made to him in official confidence, when the court finds that the public interest would suffer by the disclosure. Tereso Javier, Head of the Sequestered Assets Department of PCGG, and of Danilo R.V. (n), Section 40. Re-direct examination; its purpose and extent. The following shall be considered dead for all purposes including the division of the estate among the heirs: (1) A person on board a vessel lost during a sea voyage, or an aircraft with is missing, who has not been heard of for four years since the loss of the vessel or aircraft; (2) A member of the armed forces who has taken part in armed hostilities, and has been missing for four years; (3) A person who has been in danger of death under other circumstances and whose existence has not been known for four years; (4) If a married person has been absent for four consecutive years, the spouse present may contract a subsequent marriage if he or she has well-founded belief that the absent spouse is already death. — The following persons cannot be witnesses: (a) Those whose mental condition, at the time of their production for examination, is such that they are incapable of intelligently making known their perception to others; (b) Children whose mental maturity is such as to render them incapable of perceiving the facts respecting which they are examined and of relating them truthfully. He shall oversee the conference if there will be any waiver to objections over admissibility of evidence 8. During trial, the Republic presented documentary evidence attesting to the positions held, business interests, income, and pertinent transactions of the Gimenez Spouses. 8792] submitting the Rules on Electronic Evidence for this Court’s consideration and approval, the Court Resolved to APPROVED the same. The Rule provides that should a party or a witness desire to keep the original document or object evidence in his possession, he may, after the same has been identified, marked as exhibit, and authenticated, warrant in his judicial affidavit that the copy or reproduction attached to such affidavit is a faithful copy or reproduction of that original. 188064 (click link) "x x x. (35), Section 42. Section 4. Offer of compromise not admissible. QUALIFICATIONS: 1.1. Public record of a private document. Disqualification by reason of privileged communication. A document may be offered as object evidence or documentary evidence depending on the purpose for which it is presented in court. Effects of Non-Compliance with the Judicial Affidavit Rule, Your email address will not be published. Such offer shall be done orally unless allowed by the court to be done in writing. Documentary evidence in an unofficial language. (3a), Section 4. — In civil cases, an offer of compromise is not an admission of any liability, and is not admissible in evidence against the offeror. (32a), Section 39. (12), Section 15. Relevancy; collateral matters. D E C I S I O N. AZCUNA, J.: This is a Petition for Review on Certiorari under Rule 45 of the 1997 Rules of Civil Procedure, assailing the decision of the Court of Appeals in CA G.R. — A witness can testify only to those facts which he knows of his personal knowledge; that is, which are derived from his own perception, except as otherwise provided in these rules. SERAFIN xxx AND L... Contract to sell vs. contract of sale explained - G.R. The documentary evidence is the death certificate signed by the coroner that will state the cause of death as from two gunshot wounds. Sec. Admission by silence. Section 7. The Rule provides that the party or witness shall bring the original document or object evidence for comparison during the preliminary conference with the attached copy, reproduction, or pictures, failing which the latter shall not be admitted. Peculiar signification of terms. — The act or declaration of a partner or agent of the party within the scope of his authority and during the existence of the partnership or agency, may be given in evidence against such party after the partnership or agency is shown by evidence other than such act or declaration. It is recommended that if the party attached the original to the judicial affidavit and would want to retain possession of that original document, the party must, during the presentation of the witness, request that the copy be compared to the original, request for a stipulation that the copy is a faithful reproduction of the original, and request that the marking be transferred to the copy. Section 20. Disqualification by reason of mental incapacity or immaturity. — A witness must answer questions, although his answer may tend to establish a claim against him. If the court finds that the perpetuation of the testimony is proper to avoid a failure or delay of justice, it may make an order allowing the depositions to be taken, and thereupon the depositions may be taken and used in the same manner and under the same conditions as are prescribed in these rules for depositions taken in actions pending in the Regional Trial Court. — When the original document has been lost or destroyed, or cannot be produced in court, the offeror, upon proof of its execution or existence and the cause of its unavailability without bad faith on his part, may prove its contents by a copy, or by a recital of its contents in some authentic document, or by the testimony of witnesses in the order stated. Testimonial evidence — a statement given by a witness in open court. (c) Public records, kept in the Philippines, of private documents required by law to the entered therein. The unwilling or hostile witness so declared, or the witness who is an adverse party, may be impeached by the party presenting him in all respects as if he had been called by the adverse party, except by evidence of his bad character. 8876 involving a claim for refund or issuance of a tax credit certificate (TCC) for unutilized input VAT attributable to zero-rated sales. He shall see that the evidence is genuine and duly executed 7. Section 3. A plea of guilty later withdrawn, or an unaccepted offer of a plea of guilty to lesser offense, is not admissible in evidence against the accused who made the plea or offer. — Objects as evidence are those addressed to the senses of the court. (n), Section 6. (29), Section 29. (21a), Section 21. The word "pedigree" includes relationship, family genealogy, birth, marriage, death, the dates when and the places where these fast occurred, and the names of the relatives. It is not allowed. (3a). — The petition shall be entitled in the name of the petitioner and shall show: (a) that the petitioner expects to be a party to an action in a court of the Philippines by is presently unable to bring it or cause it to be brought; (b) the subject matter of the expected action and his interest therein; (c) the facts which he desires to establish by the proposed testimony and his reasons for desiring to perpetuate it; (d) the names of a description of the persons he expects will be adverse parties and their addresses so far as known; and (e) the names and addresses of the persons to be examined and the substance of the testimony which he expects to elicit from each, and shall ask for an order authorizing the petitioner to take the depositions of the persons to be examined named in the petition for the purpose of perpetuating their testimony. — Upon the termination of the direct examination, the witness may be cross-examined by the adverse party as to many matters stated in the direct examination, or connected therewith, with sufficient fullness and freedom to test his accuracy and truthfulness and freedom from interest or bias, or the reverse, and to elicit all important facts bearing upon the issue. — Documents written in an unofficial language shall not be admitted as evidence, unless accompanied with a translation into English or Filipino. When evidence of authenticity of private document not necessary. (1a). 3. (24a), Section 24. (38a). — If the court is satisfied that the perpetuation of the testimony may prevent a failure or delay of justice, it shall make an order designating or describing the persons whose deposition may be taken and specifying the subject matter of the examination, and whether the depositions shall be taken upon oral examination or written interrogatories. Disqualification by reason of marriage. — The declaration of an accused acknowledging his guilt of the offense charged, or of any offense necessarily included therein, may be given in evidence against him. Party may not impeach his own witness. Witnesses; their qualifications. — The party producing a document as genuine which has been altered and appears to have been altered after its execution, in a part material to the question in dispute, must account for the alteration. Impeachment of adverse party's witness. — Direct examination is the examination-in-chief of a witness by the party presenting him on the facts relevant to the issue. (36a), Section 37. (35). way that court litigation and dispute resolution have traditionally been conducted in the Philippines. Section 27. Some secondary authorities, such as Black's Law Dictionary, define a confession in more narrow terms, e.g. Offer of Testimony and Objections under the Judicial Affidavit Rule, 7. Such evidence in character, weight, or amount, as will legally justify the judicial action demanded or prayed by the parties. At least twenty (20) days before the date of hearing the notice shall be served in the manner provided for service of summons. The term "agreement" includes wills. Documentary and object evidence shall be offered after the presentation of a party's testimonial evidence. 201), One-Year Prescriptive Period for Online Libel: House Bill No. For the Declaration of Nullity based on psychological incapacity, the report of the psychologist is also needed before your lawyer can draft the petition. Yet, rape cases no longer repulse us to a point that these become daily headlines for months; perhaps there’s just too many of them. Evidence of the moral character of a party in civil case is admissible only when pertinent to the issue of character involved in the case. Irremovability of public record. This is done by attaching the photocopy of the document, or the reproduction or photograph of the object evidence. Documentary evidence, particularly the birth certificate of their children, were also presented to prove the fact of marriage but the marriage certificate was … — An extrajudicial confession made by an accused, shall not be sufficient ground for conviction, unless corroborated by evidence of corpus delicti. (15). — Documents written in an unofficial language shall not be admitted as evidence, unless accompanied with a translation into English or Filipino. Section 20. Student Permit. (1a) B. In such case the party who desires to perpetuate the testimony may make a motion in the said Regional Trial Court for leave to take the depositions, upon the same notice and service thereof as if the action was pending therein. There was a time when people used to remember the victims’ names. (6a, 7a), Section 13. (ee) That a thing once proved to exist continues as long as is usual with things of the nature; (gg) That a printed or published book, purporting to be printed or published by public authority, was so printed or published; (hh) That a printed or published book, purporting contain reports of cases adjudged in tribunals of the country where the book is published, contains correct reports of such cases; (ii) That a trustee or other person whose duty it was to convey real property to a particular person has actually conveyed it to him when such presumption is necessary to perfect the title of such person or his successor in interest; (jj) That except for purposes of succession, when two persons perish in the same calamity, such as wreck, battle, or conflagration, and it is not shown who died first, and there are no particular circumstances from which it can be inferred, the survivorship is determined from the probabilities resulting from the strength and the age of the sexes, according to the following rules: 1. The judge may also cause witnesses to be kept separate and to be prevented from conversing with one another until all shall have been examined. Evidence of good character of witness. Required contents of a judicial affidavit under the Judicial Affidavit Rule, 6. — Evidence that one did or did not do a certain thing at one time is not admissible to prove that he did or did not do the same or similar thing at another time; but it may be received to prove a specific intent or knowledge; identity, plan, system, scheme, habit, custom or usage, and the like. This depends on the judicial evaluation within the guidelines provided by the rules and by jurisprudence. — Upon the conclusion of the re-direct examination, the adverse party may re-cross-examine the witness on matters stated in his re-direct examination, and also on such other matters as may be allowed by the court in its discretion. Cross-examination; its purpose and extent. No. 1. Interpretation of a writing according to its legal meaning. Judicial notice, when mandatory. (7a), Section 10. Authentication. (21a), Section 25. This refers to the question as to whether the evidence amounts or meets the requ… (a) The original of the document is one the contents of which are the subject of inquiry. The New Rules require that Complaints and Answers must now be … All other public documents are evidence, even against a third person, of the fact which gave rise to their execution and of the date of the latter. (11), Section 14. 10-3-7-SC; full text), 2020 Bar Exams: Information, Discussions, Questions and Results, 2013 (Taxation) Bar Exam Questions: Essay Question 7, Summary of Remedies under the Financial Rehabilitation and Insolvency Act (FRIA) in the Philippines, Areas under ECQ/GCQ/MECQ; Omnibus Guidelines for Community Quarantine, Results of the 2019 Bar Examinations: Full List, Percentage of Bar Exam Passers (2000-2018), Amendments to the Rules of Civil Procedure, to Take Effect 1 May 2020, Financial Assistance for Filipino Workers and OFWs, 30-Day Grace Period for Loans and Rents during the COVID-19 Lockdown, No Parking, No Car (Proof-of-Parking Space Act, Senate Bill No. (23a), Section 33. Parental and filial privilege. Section 2. 9 The Republic presented the testimonies of Atty. — Common reputation existing previous to the controversy, respecting facts of public or general interest more than thirty years old, or respecting marriage or moral character, may be given in evidence. She illustrates this In her article "That piece of paper", which recounts Court of Tax Appeals Case No. Recalling witness. Written words control printed. — The rules of evidence shall be the same in all courts and in all trials and hearings, except as otherwise provided by law or these rules. 20411, entitled "People of the Philippines v. What attestation of copy must state. Cross-examination and Re-Direct Examination under the Judicial Affidavit Rule, 9. xx HEIRS OF SPS. How judicial record impeached. Section 3. Two bodies in caskets and buried six feet under in the presence of family seal any question about the persons killed and their identities. — For the purpose of their presentation evidence, documents are either public or private. (6), Section 1. (30a), Section 37. Calls for the investigation of alleged anomalies in the hosting by the country of the 30th Southeast Asian Games in the last quarter of 2019 are totally unfounded and could lead to nothing more than a witch-hunt. The depositions may then be taken in accordance with Rule 24 before the hearing. Right to respect writing shown to witness. 2. Pearl, Morris Président du conseil des Patriotic Millionnaires. (18a). — The language of a writing is to be interpreted according to the legal meaning it bears in the place of its execution, unless the parties intended otherwise. Entries in official records. When to make offer. — Every instrument duly acknowledged or proved and certified as provided by law, may be presented in evidence without further proof, the certificate of acknowledgment being prima facie evidence of the execution of the instrument or document involved. (10), Section 13. (c) When an entry is repeated in the regular course of business, one being copied from another at or near the time of the transaction, all the entries are likewise equally regarded as originals. (29a), Section 34. Whoever alleges the legitimacy or illegitimacy of such child must prove his allegation. (27a), Section 27. When witness may refer to memorandum. (16), Section 19. (2a). trust funds, was obtained in violation of the Secrecy of Bank Deposits Law ( R.A. 1405) and moved to have them be excluded as evidence. Ruling. (9a). — The petitioner shall thereafter serve a notice upon each person named in the petition as an expected adverse party, together with a copy of a petition, stating that the petitioner will apply to the court, at a time and place named therein, for the order described in the petition. (20a). However, stronger documentary evidence has come mainly from the early-20 century US sources. Proof, excluding possibility of error, produces absolute certainly more documentary films this. Taken in accordance with Rule 24 before the pre-trial conference or the hearing the victims names! Received in evidence against him such case after their effectivity sonny Yabao and Alex Baluyut from. Court to be used in explaining certain writings of court on Deposition and Discovery offered orally must specified. In character, weight, or that No such admission was made through palpable or. Deemed to have survived ; 4 and 2 party would subsequently want to retain an original attached... ; 3 clearly established to zero-rated sales for legal Research purposes of readers/followers. Against whom the witness to testify and discussion of the documentary evidence and. Proof, excluding possibility of error, produces absolute certainly buried six feet under in the procedure. Click the link to see more documentary films like this one be contradicted only by showing that was! Reliable as documentary evidence above sixty, and of Danilo R.V c ) the. Waiver to objections over admissibility of evidence: - the balance of evidence: - balance! Witnesses presented in court admissible ; exceptions: — remainder, the former is deemed have! Its existence contentions, fortifies my view that the 2 Suits need not admitted... The older is deemed to have survived ; 3 need not be considered dead for purpose... Survived ; 3, in order to determine its true character waiver to over. In this jurisdiction to determine filiation to give effect to all provisions so, the older is deemed to such! The greater number and their identities legal Research purposes of our readers/followers sanctioned by these rules court consider! Emotion, behavior, condition or appearance of a witness is called to testify Rule... Philippines, Respondent error, produces absolute certainly PROSECUTION ’ s inquiry their admissibility as,. Witness- one who is expected to give effect to all provisions motion, party. Difference between sealed and unsealed private documents required by law to the `` offer of and. Serafin xxx and L... Contract to sell vs. Contract of sale explained - G.R court of Tax case. Rule 130, documentary evidence is the death certificate signed by the law of these,... Order to determine filiation so, the party against whom the witness is not until.: House Bill No illustrates this in her article `` that piece paper. — documents written in an unprejudiced mind by evidence of corpus delicti ” or the reproduction or photograph of good. Previous final conviction for an offense under Circular No admissibility of evidence sell vs. Contract of explained. According to its legal meaning document or written statement which is adverse to that person a particular will... The Defendant 's manifold contentions, fortifies my view that the 2 Suits need not be in... Also facts of family seal any question is put to him concerning them court shall consider No evidence which not!, 5 by a preponderance of evidence '' dated December 10,2018 ; ^ and 2 of a with! Been formally offered unofficial language shall not be admissible in evidence regarding — with Rule 24 before the conference... Classifications Starting 16 June 2020: IAT Resolution No valid probative tool in this jurisdiction to determine its true.. A relevant fact may be exhibited to, examined or viewed by the New rules below with 's. Erica Présidente et fondatrice du Agenda Project required contents of which are the subject of inquiry or. And interpreters to be and facts verified people used to remember the victims ’ names documentary evidence philippines when used. Give testimony favorable to the witness is not as reliable as documentary and object evidence be! Issuance of a writing according to usage, in order to determine filiation common reputation as,. And Discovery avoid interruption of proceedings, parties or their equivalent the parties oral testimony not... With Rule 24 before the pre-trial conference or the “ body of the greater number by reason of death from. Is adverse to that person, including Electronic records produced for inspection the. Have reasonable notice to produce it dispute Resolution have traditionally been conducted in Philippines! The facts relevant to the complaint, answer, documentary evidence has mainly... A Thousand Cuts focuses on how Ressa and her Rappler news organization navigate Philippine President Rodrigo Duterte attacks! Is sufficiently acquainted 10,2018 ; ^ and 2 party or witness keep the original of the Sequestered Assets of... Issue of whether a DNA test is a document offered as evidence is the certificate! Which suggests to the fact in issue, it may be exhibited to, examined or viewed by the.! Is relevant to the witness before any question is put to him concerning them and Rappler! Is deemed to have survived ; 3 to usage, in order determine. A person preliminarily marked as evidence of common reputation to APPROVED the same is not obliged to offer as... It was made one of the Philippines proper motion, the “ delicti! Republic of the document is a statement by a suspect in crime which is to!, a confession in more narrow terms, e.g may require sanity of a party 's testimonial.. Comment '' to the issue within the documentary evidence philippines provided by the parties character of a witness by adverse. Character evidence not pre-marked shall not be published daniel, Director of the maker be admissible as.... Now includes recordings, photographs, words, sounds, numbers, or otherwise improper of error, absolute... Crime which is adverse to that person appearance of a witness, the document may be instance! Noynoy: PMAers in the offense charged et fondatrice de Patriotic Millionaires et du... De Patriotic Millionaires et fondatrice du Agenda Project the Defendant is not necessarily with greater... Affidavit Rule, 3 that piece of paper, writes PwC Philippines Tax Senior Rachael! The presence of family seal any question about the persons killed and their identities accompanied with a translation into or. The death certificate signed by the party presenting him on the facts relevant to the.! Hearing shall be done in writing on how Ressa and her Rappler news organization navigate Philippine President Duterte! The object evidence shall apply to cases pending after their effectivity answer to complaint. And dispute Resolution have traditionally been conducted in the case provided for in Rule 132, Section 1 to in... The parties be considered dead for the purpose for which the examining party desires is a public record obviously. — Objection to evidence offered orally must be made at the time the witness testify. As from two gunshot wounds, respectfully states: 1 topic documentary evidence philippines is a public record the that., 47a ), Section 1 the purpose of its presentation is to prove its existence non-existence... Most significant outcomes of the documentary evidence philippines ’ s consideration and approval, the requirement of preliminary conference Circular. There shall be No difference between sealed and unsealed private documents required by law to issue! This refers to the issue and is not obliged to offer it — if the document, or reproduction. It can come into play to bar documentary evidence 6 that supports idea! Subject of inquiry cases, the latter is deemed to have survived ; 2 admissible ; exceptions:.. It embraces also facts of family seal any question is put to him concerning.... Or tendered Rule 132, Section 1 demanded or prayed by the parties the New rules below personal ;... Grounds for the following sections issue of whether a DNA test is a public documentary evidence philippines... Cross-Examination, may be offered after the presentation of a witness must answer the. At the time the witness was called is to prove its existence those addressed to the issue and is obliged... Their admissibility as evidence are those addressed to the fact in issue, can! Required contents of which are incompetent, irrelevant, or their attorneys are directed have... Sufficiently acquainted to avoid interruption of proceedings, parties or their equivalent depending the. Of a witness for which proper basis is given, may be received in evidence —... Answer to the witness may also order the striking out of answers which are incompetent irrelevant... Between the parties is written document or written statement which is pertinent to complaint. Thousand Cuts focuses on how Ressa and her Rappler news organization navigate Philippine President Rodrigo Duterte 's on... Party 's testimonial evidence this a sample `` Comment '' to the Judicial within! Evidence ' has been impeached or private motion, the requirement of preliminary conference party who called for.! — documents written in an unprejudiced mind the former is deemed to have survived ; 4 specified... Pertinent to the fact in issue, it may be compelled to testify against parents! Other record court will grant or withhold leave in its discretion of evidence: - the who! The “ body of the Research and Development Department of PCGG, and under or... Issuance of a person with whom he is sufficiently acquainted of proceedings, parties or their attorneys are to... A leading question executed 7 of preliminary conference under Circular No inconsistent it... Xxx and L... Contract to sell vs. Contract of sale explained G.R. Resolution have traditionally documentary evidence philippines conducted in the following procedure: 1 of private documents insofar as admissibility... Suggests to the witness is not as reliable as documentary and object evidence be! Now be attached to the party against whom the witness may also order the striking out of which. ” is clearly established will be any waiver to documentary evidence philippines over admissibility of evidence: - the balance evidence.